Everything in the Universe is made from one type of particle.
All workings of the Universe are result from said particle.
NO SPATIAL EXPANSION -- NO DARK ENERGY -- NO SINGULARITIES
Spatial Expansion? Ummm... No!
The particle itself would be just the grey threads (or strings) in the picture (no color and a lot thinner of course).
It would fit perfectly inside of a dodecahedron
Actual thread (or string) length is about one Ångström and it is fine enough where 10 threads (20 radii) could curl-up into the size of a neutron.
Imagine an orange or grapefruit floating in space and then the space around it expands.
What happens to the grapefruit? Nothing, it does not move.
The supposed expansion has to be happening on all sides
<---> ● <--->
Can space-time / the-fabric-of-space / a-particle-network / the-inflaton-field / dark-energy / etc. or anything else push or pull matter?
It would have to be pushing or pulling on all sides.
---> ● <---
<--- ● --->
---- ● ----
Push on both sides of an orange really hard...
---> ● <---
Which way did it move? Whoooops, it didn't move.
Above is an example with one object and space supposedly expanding.
Notice with one object it is very easy to see nothing is going to move.
But when you add more than one object into the scenario you might get fooled into thinking objects will move...
Here is how it looks with more than one orange (object), look at it as a whole and then look at individual objects.
<--> ● <--> ● <--> ● <--> ● <--> ● <-->
Add pressure or increase particle network strength... the particle network will just get thicker.
<==> ● <==> ● <==> ● <==> ● <==> ● <==>
No movement, no change in distance between matter
Net effect? Nothing.
Imagine a bunch of oranges on a table in a room and then you pressurize the room...
Will the oranges move apart from each other? Of course not.
If expanding space is causing a flowing in one direction...
then space would just flow around any object. The object will not move. And even if flowing space could move objects... the objects would not expand away from each other. They would just move away from the point of flow origin. That would mean there is spot in space that creates flow. And it would also mean there would be a spherical outward-from-center flow, with less and less flow further out in the sphere (more area to cover with same initial amount of flow). That just doesn't work.
If space is expanding uniformly...
the expansion would be on all sides of any object and nothing would move.
Anyway you look at it nothing happens. The spatial expansion (more particles introduced into the system) cannot be happening in one spot and it cannot be happening everywhere at the same time. Neither will do the expansion.
And you have to remember... we are talking about a particle network.
It doesn't matter what the individual particles actually are. You would need a continuously attached group in order to do something. You can pull on a thread attached to a kite and reel it in. But there is no way to could push a kite away with an attached group of thread particles (or any type particles). Pushing away with a particle network only works with same pole magnets and very short distance.
Pulling (gravity) works because you can have tension on the particles between matter.
It's simple... the thread particle network has an overall tension on it coming from infinity (that could be considered dark energy) and any objects in the particle network of course will have a higher tension between them (there are more particle network connections) -- once again, that's gravity.
Stuff cannot compress to infinity or infinite density.
Matter is particles. Whatever gravity is... it is also connected particles.
So you have particles connected to other particles by way of particles.
If matter is the red particles and gravity is the yellow lines (that would be supposed gravitons, also particles)...
you can increase the strength (pull) of the yellow lines (the ~~ threads) to a massive amount and it will pull the reds together (the protons or ●● dots ), but it is not going to collapse the reds into a point. It will just hold everything together unbelievably tight.
...and notice there would be nothing surrounding the group as a whole that could tighten, compress and collapse the group.
NOTE: this was only an easy to understand example but that is how it is working.
The strength of gravity doesn't actually change too much, it's the amount of connections that would vary the intensity in (for instance what they call) a black hole.
Also, Atoms are mostly empty space. If you took the Earth and converted / crushed it into a neutron star (just neutrons and protons) it would be about the size of a football field. Are the neutrons solid? I don't know -- but they say an Earth's worth of Black Hole density (that would be crushed even smaller) would be the size of a golf-ball. I would have to call that literally solid. I don't believe you can crush matter down to a point, there would have to be a limit. And golf ball sounds about correct for an earth's worth of Black Hole material. It would be solid at that size and no more compression possible. Understand? You cannot crush something that is literally solid.
Also, gravity is the weakest of the forces, correct?
The strong force is much stronger but it is not collapsing the protons and neutrons in a nucleus. It just holds them together tightly. Got it?
If the strong force cannot collapse matter, how is gravity going to?
Think about it for 20 years if you have to.
BLACK HOLE - VOID SPHERE - NULL SPACE
There is No need for a Black Hole.
NOTE: I am not saying there are no Black Holes, this is just an example of how observational evidence is worthless and might be completely wrong.
This video show stars orbiting around something non visible, what appears to be nothing, so it must be a black hole?
Stars Orbiting Milky Way Super Massive Black Hole
You know what else they could be orbiting?
Any two objects like planets are connected by a thread particle network with tension.
(or if you are still living in the past you can say there is a curve or warp)
There must be some kind of connection from one to the other (warp or space is curved)
So if you add more objects and they are swirling around a common center. That means there would be a tension stretch coming from every direction concentrated right in the center of the swirl.
So if there is a star near the common center with the massive concentrated omni-directional tension (call it warp or curve if you like) which way do you think the pull would be? Toward the massive amount of tension or away from it?
There are supposedly 100 billion stars in the galaxy. So that means there are 100 billion things pulling on a
common center. There actually doesn't have to be anything there. Galaxies might have what is referred to as a black hole but they can also hold themselves together.
The galactic tension pull is actually planar not omni-directional so it is even more concentrated then what you were just thinking.
And if there were enough tension on the common center to create a tear in the "fabric of space" it would create a void or a null-space-sphere (actually an oblate spheroid).
The edges of the void sphere would have the build-up of the torn / ripped particle network - just like a rip in a fishnet stocking - that is now enclosing literally nothing
. That instantly disperses the tension from a single point to the surface of a hollow sphere. So if space ever does actually rip... it has a way to seal itself right back off (stop the tear) and eliminate the chance of it happening again in that spot.
Can light travel through it on the inside? No! Light is only a vibration traveling through the particle network. Inside the void sphere there are no particles.
Can you travel into the void sphere? Yes, but inside there is no light or heat transmission, no gravity and no particle network -- and that is what is transmitting all the vibrations (energies) so, you can't lose any heat, it has no where to go, it can't vibrate away anymore.
Will you collapse because of the loss of particle network tension? Maybe, maybe not... if you have a highly stretched tennis net and cut a piece out of it... the piece is not going to collapse into nothingness.
Any light hitting it (from 100 billions stars etc.) would be forced / coerced into traveling around what can be called the event horizon of the sphere -- just like an electrons thread-mesh-type-cage (that's the only place it can travel) there of course would be a build up and the only place to release is at the poles as jets
(no extreme tension there).
To sum it up: "Nothing" has all the properties they say a Black Hole does. And sometimes "nothing" can be a real cool hand!
VACUUM OF SPACE
Space is not a vacuum, it is normal, we are under pressure.
also... I'm sure the vacuum energy of (actually non) empty space is not a vacuum, it is tension on the particle network of threads. I would bet my life on it.
It also explains (what they call) Dark Energy... everything is being pulled on (not pushed) equally from every direction.
If there are two end points (any type of matter, planets or anything) that creates a stronger connection and they pull together -- that's gravity.
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